Home » ACT » ACT Answer Explanations » Answer Explanations for: ACT Form 1267C (67C), from Preparing for the ACT 2012-2013

Answer Explanations for: ACT Form 1267C (67C), from Preparing for the ACT 2012-2013

Preparing for the ACT is a booklet provided for free by the ACT to help students prepare for the test.  It is often available from your high school guidance counselor.  It is also available online here: http://media.act.org/documents/preparing.pdf
Take this practice test from the 2012-2013 version of this booklet, ACT Form 1267C (67C), and then use our answer explanations to learn from your mistakes and gain a greater understanding of the test.

English

Passage I

1)      B) A comma is needed between the independent clause that ends with the word “snake” and the phrase that follows, since the phrase is a nonessential element of the sentence that further describes the snake-like shape of the path.  There is simply no need for any commas anywhere else in the underlined portion.  You must have a reason to put a comma in the sentence rather than a reason not to.  Know your comma rules, and if there is no specific reason to use a comma, do not use one.  Answer choice A could be tempting, but remember that a comma is not used with a conjunction (such as “and”) unless the conjunction is joining two independent clauses or a list of three or more items, neither of which is the case here.   See comma use.

2)      J) Watch out for the “NOT.”  Answer choice J is unacceptable because the “and” (found in the original sentence) is needed in order to join the two verbs, “cleared” and “paved.”  Answer choice F is acceptable because it turns the portion of the sentence beginning with the word “paving” and ending with the word “gravel” into a nonessential element, which is then correctly offset from the rest of the sentence by commas on both sides.  G is acceptable because the word “then” provides an appropriate sequential transition.  H is acceptable because the word “before” provides an appropriate sequential transition.  See comma use and transition words.

3)      D) The pronoun “they” is used vaguely in the original sentence, since it does not have a clear and recent antecedent (the word a pronoun renames).  Therefore, it is necessary to use a noun instead, so D is the correct answer.  When the ACT gives you the option of using a noun instead of a pronoun, there is a high likelihood that the noun is the correct answer.  Check to see if the pronoun has a clear and recent antecedent, and if it does not, choose the noun.  See pronoun agreement.

4)      F) On the ACT, it is best to think of dashes as generic punctuation.  Use them where you know you need punctuation but where none of the other options you are given is acceptable.  In this case, it should be obvious that you need some sort of punctuation between “day” and “not,” so H can be eliminated.  G is incorrect because semi-colons are used between two independent clauses, and the second part of the sentence is not an independent clause, as it is incapable of standing on its own.  Although the comma in J would work, the semi-colon is again problematic because it is not being used between two independent clauses.  Therefore, by process of elimination, F is the best answer.

5)      B) This question is simply asking what the preceding sentence adds to the essay.  Process of elimination is a great approach on this type of question.  A is incorrect because the sentence does not give any reasons.  C is incorrect because there is nothing overly serious about this sentence.  D is incorrect because this sentence is important; otherwise, the reader would not know what exactly Luigi is.  The correct answer is B, since this sentence helps clarify the statement made in the previous sentence.

6)      J) Answer choices F, G, and H each incorrectly join two independent clauses with a comma and no conjunction.  (“Because” is not a conjunction.) J is correct because it joins the two independent clauses with a comma and the conjunction “so.”

7)      D) On questions like this that give you a specific purpose, pay attention primarily to the purpose and minimally to the context, unless the purpose itself is context dependent.  Sometimes incorrect answers are made to sound great in the context even though they do not accomplish the stated purpose.  In this case, D is the correct answer, since it is the only option that shows the narrator’s emotional attachment to Luigi, which it does by describing it much as one would describe a friendly kitten.

8)      F) J can quickly be eliminated because it results in fragment, which fails to express a complete thought.  F is correct over G and H because the entire essay is written in the first person, and it is necessary to stay consistent.

9)      A) Answer choices B and D can be eliminated for two reasons.  First, they both incorrectly imply a cause and effect relationship between the two clauses of the sentence.  Second, they both feature dependent clauses for the first part of the sentence, which are then incorrectly joined to the dependent clause that follows with a comma-conjunction (“and”).  Remember that no conjunction should be used when joining a dependent clause to an independent clause.  Both A and C correctly construct the first part of the sentence as an independent clause, which is then correctly joined to the following independent clause with a comma-conjunction.  A is correct over C because it seems unlikely that the month changed while the narrator was out riding.  (Indeed, it changes from August to September at midnight.)  See two independent clauses.

10)  H) There is simply no need for any commas in this part of the sentence.  You must have a reason to put a comma in the sentence rather than a reason not to.  Know your comma rules, and if there is no specific reason to use a comma, do not use one.  See comma use.

11)  A) To answer this question, you must first read the rest of the paragraph to determine its subject.  Since the paragraph deals primarily with the narrator slowing down to enjoy nature, answer choice A forms an effective introductory sentence, since it sets up a contrast to the narrator’s relaxed pace.  Answer choice A is also the only option that in any way fits the description that follows in the latter part of the sentence; “a blur of color and a cloud of dust” would not make sense as a description of the sun, nature, or days.

12)  H) Here, you have two independent clauses, so H is the best option.  Whenever you are given the option of a period, semi-colon, or comma-conjunction, you should see if you have two independent clauses.  If so, the period, semi-colon, or comma conjunction (provided that it is an appropriate conjunction) will be a grammatically correct construction.  G is tempting, but it would require a period or semi-colon instead of the comma before the word “however” in order to be grammatically correct.

13)  D) There is simply no need for any punctuation in this part of the sentence.  You must have a reason to put punctuation in the sentence rather than a reason not to.  Know your punctuation rules, and if there is no specific reason to use punctuation, do not use any.  Specifically, A and C can be eliminated because semi-colons are used to separate two independent clauses, and in each answer choice, the portion of the sentence that comes after the semi-colon is not an independent clause.  B can be eliminated because it incorrectly indicates that “looking” is a nonessential part of the sentence.  See comma use.

14)  G) On apostrophe questions, you must consider two things: 1) whether it is plural or singular and 2) whether it is possessive or not possessive.  Here, “trail’s” is singular because only one trail is being discussed.  It is also a possessive word, since it is describing the end of the trail, so you need the singular possessive “trail’s,” which correctly places the apostrophe before the “s.”  F is incorrect because it is plural and not possessive.  H is incorrect because it is plural and possessive.  J is incorrect because it is not a grammatically acceptable version of “trail” in any situation.

15)  B) This essay accomplishes the stated goal because it describes the pleasure the narrator takes in nature while riding her motorized wheelchair on the trail, so B is the correct answer.  Answer choice A could be tempting, but it is incorrect because the essay focuses more on the narrator’s experience rather than on the wildflowers in particular.  D could be tempting, but it is incorrect because the essay focuses on the narrator’s experience riding the wheelchair rather than on how the wheelchair works from a mechanical perspective.

 

Passage II

16)  G) There must be a comma rather than a semi-colon after “1904” to separate the phrase at the beginning of the sentence from the independent clause that follows.  Remember that semi-colons are used to join two independent clauses, not a phrase and an independent clause.  Therefore, F and H can be eliminated.  G is correct over J because the comma between the time and the date is simply unnecessary.  Remember that you must have a reason to put a comma in a sentence rather than a reason not to.  Know your comma rules, and if there is no specific reason to use a comma, do not use one.  See comma use.

17)  C) C is correct because it correctly uses a colon to separate an independent clause from the “one item list” that follows.  Although what follows the independent clause is not technically a list, since it consists of only one item, it still functions as a list, so a colon is appropriate.  Answer choice A is incorrect because semi-colons are used to separate two independent clauses, and what comes after the semi-colon is not an independent clause, since it does not express a complete thought.  Answer choice B is incorrect because the word “over” makes no sense in this context and interrupts the logical flow of the sentence.  Answer choice D is incorrect because a colon is necessary when joining an independent clause to a list (even a “one item list”) that follows.

18)  G) Without this portion of the sentence, the sentence would incorrectly indicate that the entire subway had been completed, so G is the correct answer.

19)  D) When given the option to “DELETE the underlined portion,” you should think carefully about doing so, as this option is correct about half the time it is offered.  Ask yourself if there is any possibility the underlined portion could be considered unnecessary, irrelevant, or redundant.  If there is any chance it could be, it should be deleted.  In this case, the underlined portion should be deleted because answer choices A and C include information that is redundant with information found earlier in the sentence, and answer choice B contains language that adds nothing to the meaning of the sentence and is therefore unnecessary.

20)  F) On questions like this that give you a specific purpose, pay attention primarily to the purpose and minimally to the context, unless the purpose itself is context dependent.  Sometimes incorrect answers are made to sound great in the context even though they do not accomplish the stated purpose.  In this case, F is the correct answer, since it is by far the most specific option and therefore does the best job of clarifying exactly how the problem of traffic jams was solved by the subway.

21)  B) Answer choices A and C are incorrect because the pronouns “that” and “those” are used vaguely, as they each lack a clear and recent antecedent (the word a pronoun renames).  Although the pronoun “it” also lacks a clear and recent antecedent, “it” (unlike “that,” “those,” or “they”) can be used in expressions like “it is,” “it was,” or “it took” without requiring a specific antecedent, so B is the correct answer.  To some extent, this could be considered an issue of idiomatic language.  D is incorrect since it results in the verb “took” having no subject.

22)  J) No punctuation is needed in this part of the sentence, so J is the correct answer.  Answer choice F is extremely tempting, but it incorrectly implies that “the engineer” is a nonessential element of the sentence.  If that were the case, it would indicate that “the engineer” and “William Barclay Parsons” could be used interchangeably.  This would make sense only if Parsons were already established as the project’s (only) engineer.  Clearly this was not the case at the time he accepted the project, so F doesn’t make sense.  G is incorrect because dashes should be thought of as generic punctuation on the ACT, and no punctuation is needed at this point in the sentence.  H is incorrect because it incorrectly puts a comma between a subject and its verb.  See comma use.

23)  C) Here you must use the adjective “innovative” to describe the noun “engineering method,” since adjectives are the correct part of speech to use when describing nouns.  Neither the noun “innovation” nor the verb “innovate” makes sense in this context.  See adjectives, adverbs, and comparisons.

24)  F) When given the option to “DELETE the underlined portion,” you should think carefully about doing so, as this option is correct about half the time it is offered.  Ask yourself if there is any possibility the underlined portion could be considered unnecessary, irrelevant, or redundant.  If there is any chance it could be, it should be deleted.  In this case, the underlined portion cannot be deleted, since its deletion would make it unclear what exactly the workers were digging.  F is the correct answer because it provides the necessary clarification without providing redundant information like that found in G and H.

25)  C) There is no need for any punctuation at this point in the sentence, since it is typically unnecessary to use any punctuation to separate an independent clause at the beginning of a sentence from a phrase that follows.

26)  G) When given the option to “DELETE the underlined portion,” you should think carefully about doing so, as this option is correct about half the time it is offered.  Ask yourself if there is any possibility the underlined portion could be considered unnecessary, irrelevant, or redundant.  If there is any chance it could be, it should be deleted.  In this case, the underlined portion cannot be deleted because it would result in the sentence consisting of two independent clauses incorrectly joined by a comma and no conjunction.  F is incorrect because the pronoun “them” does not have a clear and recent antecedent (the word a pronoun renames).  “Them” cannot rename “public” since “public” is singular and “them” is plural.  “Whom” is correct over “who” because “whom” is an object pronoun and “who” is a subject pronoun, and the pronoun is being used as the object of the prepositional phrase beginning with the preposition “of.”  See pronoun case and pronoun agreement.

27)  A) Even though this transition word is found at the end of the sentence, it is still providing a transition from the previous sentence.  Therefore, it is necessary to read the sentence that contains the underlined portion and the sentence before it to figure out how they are related.  The sentence that contains the underlined portion offers a contrast to the skepticism described in the sentence before it, so the contradictory transition “however” is the best answer.  B incorrectly indicates a cause and effect relationship between the two sentences.  C incorrectly indicates that the second sentence provides a specific “instance,” or example, of a generalization made in the first.  D incorrectly indicates that the second sentence restates or clarifies what is stated in the first.

28)  G) On questions like this that give you a specific purpose, pay attention primarily to the purpose and minimally to the context, unless the purpose itself is context dependent.  Sometimes incorrect answers are made to sound great in the context even though they do not accomplish the stated purpose.  In this case, G is the correct answer, since it is the only option that describes in detail just how large (“expansive”) and popular the subway is today.

29)  C) Because this sentence is renaming a specific excavation technique, it must come right after this technique is first mentioned.  Therefore, it should be placed at Point C, since the sentence before this point first mentions the “cut and cover” technique.

 

Passage III

30)  J) On questions like this that give you a specific purpose, pay attention primarily to the purpose and minimally to the context, unless the purpose itself is context dependent.  Sometimes incorrect answers are made to sound great in the context even though they do not accomplish the stated purpose.  In this case, J is the only option that accomplishes the stated purpose.  If something is “revived,” it is brought back to life or prominence.  Therefore, if Rivera “revived” the fresco, he brought the art form back to prominence, indicating that it had previously been declining in popularity.

31)  B) This is a tricky question because every answer choice is grammatically correct.  However, answer choice B is the only option that results in the sentence making sense;  answer choice B correctly associates “the upper class” with “the elite galleries,” while the other answer choices incorrectly associate “the upper class” with “the public.”  If you have trouble determining what the sentence is even attempting to say, read the full sentence four times – once for each answer choice – and see if any answer choice results in a sentence that makes sense.

32)  J) Answer choice J is correct because it is the only option in which the words are placed in the correct order; the other choices all feature misplaced modifier errors due to the incorrect sequencing of words.  F is incorrect because “attracted” cannot be separated from “controversy,” since controversy is what Rivera attracted.  G is incorrect because controversy did not attract any group of people.  H is incorrect because Rivera “attracted”  “controversy,” not “belief.”

33)  D) When given the option to “DELETE the underlined portion,” you should think carefully about doing so, as this option is correct about half the time it is offered.  Ask yourself if there is any possibility the underlined portion could be considered unnecessary, irrelevant, or redundant.  If there is any chance it could be, it should be deleted.  In this case, the underlined portion should be deleted since it is redundant with the word “artistic.”  B and C are incorrect because they feature language that is simply unnecessary.

34)  H) As is typically the case when you are tested on preposition use, this is a question of idiomatic language, which means that there isn’t a broad rule that governs this situation; instead, you simply need to know the correct expression or be able to use your ear to figure it out.  Here, the expression is “as expansive as,” so H is the correct answer.

35)  B) This can be a tricky question, since it might seem difficult to determine whether the sentence intends to discuss one or more than one fresco.  However, the plural verb “depict” necessitates a plural subject, so B is the only answer choice that works.  See verb agreement.

36)  H) H is correct because it correctly uses a comma to separate the phrases at the beginning of the sentence from the independent clause that follows.  F and G are incorrect because periods and semi-colons are used to join two independent clauses, and the portion of the sentence before the period or semi-colon consists of two phrases, not an independent clause.  J is incorrect because a dash creates too strong a break between the two parts of the sentence.  Also, you should choose a dash only when there are no other acceptable options, and a comma is acceptable in this situation.  See dashes and comma use.

37)  C) Answer choice A is incorrect because it uses the plural pronoun “were” with the singular subject “empowerment.”  B and D are incorrect because the conditional structure is out of place in this sentence; there is logically no “if” involved in Rivera’s vision.  C is the correct answer because it uses the singular verb “was” with the singular subject “empowerment” and avoids the unnecessary “if.”  See verb agreement.

38)  F) F is correct because there is simply no need for any commas in this part of the sentence.  You must have a reason to put a comma in the sentence rather than a reason not to.  Know your comma rules, and if there is no specific reason to use a comma, do not use one.  H is tempting, since the word “and” could possibly be acceptable in this context, but the comma before the “and” is incorrect.  Remember that a comma is not used with a conjunction (such as “and”) unless the conjunction is joining two independent clauses or a list of three or more items, neither of which is the case here.  See comma use.

39)  C) This question is really just asking what the underlined portion adds to the sentence.  Because the underlined portion gives useful information about what exactly Rivera was commissioned to paint, C is the correct answer.  Answer choice A is incorrect because the information in the underlined portion is not found anywhere else in the sentence.  Answer choice B is incorrect because the sentence would still work grammatically without the underlined portion, even though it would be a bit vague.  D is incorrect because the information is specific and necessary, since it clarifies something that would otherwise be unclear.

40)  J) Answer choice J provides the best transition word in this context, since the second part of the sentence provides additional information about what the painting depicts.  G and H are incorrect because there is no cause and effect relationship between the two parts of the sentence.  F is incorrect because “when” indicates two events occurring at the same time, which does not make sense in this context.

41)  B) Answer choices A and C can be eliminated because they each result in a fragment, which fails to express a complete thought.  B is correct over D because D incorrectly indicates that the panels no longer depict these workers.  B is correctly written in the present tense, which is the tense used in the entire description of the fresco.  See verb tense.

42)  F) This phrase should be added because it provides relevant information that clarifies something that could have otherwise been unclear, since few people are familiar with Detroit industries other than the auto industry.  F is correct over G because the underlined portion does in fact use specific examples to clarify the “broad term” “other Detroit industries.”  G is incorrect because the underlined portion does not get into the construction of the panels but rather discusses the industries they depict.

43)  B) This question is easiest to understand if you disregard the nonessential element, “by capturing… workers,” since nonessential elements can be safely disregarded when considering a sentence for most grammatical purposes.  Reading the sentence without this nonessential element reveals that B is the only option that makes sense.

44)  J) The transition word in the underlined portion links the sentence to the previous sentence, so you must read both sentences and consider how they are logically related.  F, G, and H each indicate a contradictory relationship between the two sentences.  Such a relationship is incorrect because the second sentence is in fact aligned with the idea of the first sentence.  In fact, it follows directly from the first sentence, so no transition word is needed.

 

Passage IV

45)  A) The original sentence correctly uses a comma to separate the phrase at the end of the sentence from the independent clause that comes before it.  B, C, and D are all incorrect because, a comma-conjunction (“yet”), a period, and a semi-colon are all used to join two independent clauses, and the second part of the sentence is not an independent clause since it does not express a complete thought.

46)  J) Watch out for the “NOT.”  J is unacceptable because it joins two independent clauses without the use of any punctuation.  G and H are acceptable because they use a semi-colon and a period, respectively, to join the two independent clauses.  F is acceptable because it turns the second independent clause into a dependent clause, which can then be properly joined to the preceding independent clause with a comma.

47)  C) Commas are needed on both sides of the word “though” since this word is a nonessential part of the sentence, meaning that the sentence would still work well without it.  See comma use.

48)  F) On questions like this that give you a specific purpose, pay attention primarily to the purpose and minimally to the context, unless the purpose itself is context dependent.  Sometimes incorrect answers are made to sound great in the context even though they do not accomplish the stated purpose.  In this case, F best accomplishes the purpose, since the word “wonderful” emphasizes the narrator’s warm feelings towards her friend.  None of the other answer choices express any emotion at all.

49)  B) Answer choice D can be eliminated because people are never referred to using the pronoun “which.”  C is incorrect because “whose” is a possessive pronoun and is therefore inappropriate in this context.  B is correct over A because the subject pronoun “who” is needed over the object pronoun “whom,” since the pronoun is the subject of the verb “were.”  See pronoun case.

50)  F) In this sentence, the narrator describes something she learned, so the first person I (which is used throughout the passage) is appropriate.

51)  B) Sentence 3 should go between Sentence 1 and Sentence 2, since the information in Sentence 2 follows logically from that in Sentence 3; the narrator logically would have called Joan after learning that Joan lived in Fairbanks.

52)  J) When given the option to “DELETE the underlined portion,” you should think carefully about doing so, as this option is correct about half the time it is offered.  Ask yourself if there is any possibility the underlined portion could be considered unnecessary, irrelevant, or redundant.  If there is any chance it could be, it should be deleted.  In this case, the underlined portion should be deleted because the other answer choices are redundant with information presented earlier in the sentence.

53)  D) Watch out for the “NOT.”  D is unacceptable because “shoned” is not even a word; “shone” is the correct past tense form of the verb “to shine.”  See verb tense.

54)  H) H is correct because the details about the temperature and the appearance of the sky do give a sense of the setting.  F is incorrect because the sentence does not show how the narrator reacts to the cold.  G is incorrect because in no way does the sentence constitute a “detailed analysis;” instead, it is primarily descriptive in nature.  J is incorrect because this information is not stated elsewhere.

55)  A) This is a question of idiomatic language, which means that there isn’t a broad rule that governs this situation; instead, you simply need to know the correct expression or be able to use your ear to figure it out.  Here, the expression in the original sentence is most appropriate to describe how the girls began acting according to their “familiar habits.”  Answer choice B could be tempting, but the preposition “upon” problematically indicates that they literally took a fall; instead, “fell into” would have also been appropriate had it been offered.

56)   H) Answer choice H is the correct answer because all the other options contain misplaced modifier errors, since they do not put the words in the correct order.  F incorrectly indicates that Joan’s house actually sits on top of the rabbit hutch, while G and J both incorrectly indicate that the field is located on top of the rabbit hutch.

57)  B) Watch out for the “NOT.”  Answer choice B is unacceptable because “acquired by” indicates that her work physically took possession of her, which makes no sense.  The other answer choices all correctly indicate that she was deeply interested in her work.

58)  H) Watch out for the “NOT.”  This is a question of idiomatic language, which means that there isn’t a broad rule that governs this situation; instead, you simply need to know the correct expression or be able to use your ear to figure it out.  F, G, and J all for correct idiomatic expressions, but H is unacceptable since one cannot be firm “along” one’s decisions.

59)  A) The main idea of this essay is that the narrator and her friend picked up right where they left off despite the years that had passed since they had seen each other.  Therefore, A is the correct answer.  D could be tempting, but it is not nearly strong enough in its positive tone towards Joan.

 

Passage V

60)  G) The phrase “such strong ties” reveals that this sentence must be placed right after the narrator’s strong ties to Joan are mentioned, so G is the best placement for the sentence.

61)  A) When you notice that one answer choice (including the “NO CHANGE” option) is shorter than the others, recognize that you are being given the option of not including something that has been included in the others.  Check to see if what is included in the other answer choices could be considered unnecessary, irrelevant, or redundant.  If there is any chance it could be, choose the shorter one.  It is important to use the structure of the question to tip you off to look for possible redundancy or unnecessarily wordy language; because we often use redundant and wordy language in speech, we cannot count on it to necessarily sound bad.  In this case, answer choices B and C are incorrect because “connected” and “related” are redundant with the word “attaching,” found earlier in the sentence.  D is incorrect because it indicates a cause and effect relationship where none exists.  A is correct because it correctly uses the preposition “to” to complete the expression beginning with the word “attaching.”

62)  H) H is correct because it correctly uses a comma-conjunction to join the two independent clauses.  Although the first independent clause is only three words, it is still an independent clause since it expresses a complete thought.  F, G, and H are incorrect because they use a comma or no punctuation at all to join the two independent clauses.

63)  A)  Commas are needed on both sides of the phrase “or constellation” since this phrase is a nonessential part of the sentence, meaning that the sentence would still work well without it.  See comma use.

64)  H) On questions like this that give you a specific purpose, pay attention primarily to the purpose and minimally to the context, unless the purpose itself is context dependent.  Sometimes incorrect answers are made to sound great in the context even though they do not accomplish the stated purpose.  In this case, only H alludes (makes reference) to Orion, a mythical hunter described in the passage’s last paragraph, so H is the correct answer.

65)  D) On questions like this that give you a specific purpose, pay attention primarily to the purpose and minimally to the context, unless the purpose itself is context dependent.  Sometimes incorrect answers are made to sound great in the context even though they do not accomplish the stated purpose.  In this case, D is correct because it is the only answer that mentions anything about how the stars appear today.

66)  G) Watch out for the “NOT.”  Here you are asked to choose the subtly incorrect word out of four options that seem to be nearly synonymous.  In this case, F, H, and J are all appropriate words for people who look at stars.  G, on the other hand, does not make sense in this context, as an “overseer” is one who supervises, not one who observes.

67)  A) On questions like this that give you a specific purpose, pay attention primarily to the purpose and minimally to the context, unless the purpose itself is context dependent.  Sometimes incorrect answers are made to sound great in the context even though they do not accomplish the stated purpose.  In this case, A is the best answer, since the following part of the sentence describes a constellation that has to do with farming.

68)  J) When you notice that one answer choice (including the “NO CHANGE” option) is shorter than the others, recognize that you are being given the option of not including something that has been included in the others.  Check to see if what is included in the other answer choices could be considered unnecessary, irrelevant, or redundant.  If there is any chance it could be, choose the shorter one.  It is important to use the structure of the question to tip you off to look for possible redundancy or unnecessarily wordy language; because we often use redundant and wordy language in speech, we cannot count on it to necessarily sound bad.  In this case, F, G, and H all add language that adds nothing to the sentence and is simply unnecessary, so J, the shortest option, is in fact the correct answer.  Specifically, F and G show a level of excitement that is inconsistent with the tone of the rest of the essay, and H contains language that is overly wordy.

69)  A) The construction “still other” is used when presenting a third alternative, when “some” and “other” have already been discussed.  The word “still” is used in this context to differentiate the third alternative from the second alternative.  Whenever you are given the option of “still other” in any of the answer choices, you should check to see if “some” and “other” have already been mentioned and if a third alternative is now being presented; if so, choose “still other.”  In this case, “still other” is the appropriate transition, since the name and meaning of the constellation in “some” and “other” parts of Japan have already been mentioned in the paragraph, and a third name and meaning of the constellation in a third part of Japan is now being discussed.  C and D are tempting because they are grammatically correct constructions, but they fail to specify that a distinct third alternative is being discussed.  See transition words.

70)  G) The original sentence is incorrect because the singular verb “has” does not agree with the plural subject “stars.”  J is incorrect for the same reason.  G corrects this problem by using the plural form of the verb.  H is incorrect for two reasons; (1) a conditional construction makes no sense in this context, and (2) even if a conditional construction did make sense, the verb “have” would be appropriate rather than the preposition “of.”  The expression is “could have,” not “could of.”  See verb agreement.

71)  D) The only comma needed is the one after “Africa,” as this comma separates the phrase at the beginning of the sentence from the independent clause that follows.  No other commas are needed in this sentence.  You must have a reason to put a comma in the sentence rather than a reason not to.  Know your comma rules, and if there is no specific reason to use a comma, do not use one.  See comma use.

72)  J) J is correct because it forms the clearest, most concise sentence; the other options all result in awkwardness.  Specifically, F fails because it incorrectly indicates a causal relationship within the sentence.  G is incorrect for a similar reason.  H is incorrect because the latter part of the sentence does not state what the first part of the sentence means.

73)  C) C is the best answer because it features the proper form of the word “there.”  “There,” the form of the word that typically is used in the sense of “over there,” is also used in expressions such as “there is” and “there are.”  Answer choice A is incorrect because it features the possessive form of the word, and B is incorrect because “they’re” is a contraction of “they are.”  D is incorrect because the word “but” is unnecessary; a conjunction is not needed when separating a phrase from the independent clause that follows.

74)  G) G correctly uses a comma-conjunction to separate the two independent clauses that make up this sentence.  F and J both incorrectly join the two independent clauses with a comma but no conjunction.  H is incorrect because, although it attempts to turn the second part of the sentence into a phrase, it does not do so in a grammatically correct manner; the word “span” would need be changed to “spanning” for this construction to work.

75)  D) The final reference to one specific culture’s interpretation of the stars occurs in Sentence 6, so the conclusion paragraph should begin with Sentence 7.  If you answered C, you may have correctly understood where to begin the new paragraph but thought the question was asking after, not before, which sentence.  Be careful, because they like to mix up how they phrase these questions.